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De maand oktober (Schorpioen)

De maand oktober (Schorpioen)

Hans Bol (in 1581)

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Op een bij een kasteel gelegen boerenerf treden twee mannen de geoogste druiven in een tobbe. Aan de voorkant stroomt het vocht uit een kraantje in een ton. Rechts wordt de wijn in grote vaten overgeheveld. Abusievelijk is hier het sterrenbeeld Weegschaal (September) in plaats van Schorpioen afgebeeld.

Deze miniatuurtekening is een onderdeel van een set van twaalf maanden, gemaakt als ontwerp voor een prentencyclus, gegraveerd door Adriaen Collaert en uitgegeven door Hans van Luyck.

De maanden zijn te herkennen aan het teken van de dierenriem en de bezigheden die typerend zijn voor de betreffende maand. Ze bevatten allerlei details uit het leven van alledag en getuigen van Bols dubbele talent: als landschapskunstenaar en als 'chroniqueur' van het dagelijks leven.

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Specificaties

Titel De maand oktober (Schorpioen)
Materiaal en techniek Pen in bruine inkt, bruin gewassen, kaderlijn met de pen in bruine inkt, op een rond stuk papier
Objectsoort
Tekening > Tweedimensionaal object > Kunstvoorwerp
Locatie Dit object is in het depot
Afmetingen Diameter 140 mm
Makers Tekenaar: Hans Bol
Inventarisnummer MB 2005/T 2 j (PK)
Credits Aankoop met steun van Stichting Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Vereniging Rembrandt, Mondriaan Fonds, Stichting Job Dura Fonds en Cultuurfonds, 2005
Collectie Tekeningen & Prenten
Verwervingsdatum 2005
Vervaardigingsdatum in 1581
Signatuur ‘hans bol / 1581’ gesigneerd en gedateerd (middenonder, in pen in bruine inkt)
Watermerk geen (vH, 5P)
Conditie Het teken van de dierenriem is getekend op een apart rond stukje papier dat op het tekenblad geplakt is; gedoubleerd
Inscripties geen
Merkteken geen
Herkomst zie onder inv.nr. MB 2005/T 2 a
Tentoonstellingen Amsterdam/Ontario 1972, nr. 3; Rotterdam 2004b; Rotterdam 2008 (coll 1 kw 1); Rotterdam 2010 (coll 2 kw 6); Parijs/Rotterdam 2014, nr. 32.10; Washington 2017, nr. #
Interne tentoonstellingen De Collectie Twee - wissel VI, Prenten & Tekeningen (2010)
Het jaar rond met Bol (2004)
Externe tentoonstellingen Bosch to Bloemaert. Early Netherlandish Drawings (2017)
Bosch to Bloemaert. Early Netherlandish Drawings from the Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (2014)
Onderzoek Toon onderzoek Nederlandse tekeningen uit de vijftiende en zestiende eeuw
Literatuur [de serie:] Hollstein III, 1950, p. 51, onder nrs. 66-77; Hollstein IV, 1951, p. 206, onder nrs. 523-534; New Hollstein 2005-2006, part VI, p. 48, onder nrs. 1326-1337; Elen/Van der Coelen 2006, pp. 13-16; Collection Catalogue 2012 (online)
Materiaal
Object
Techniek
Bruin gewassen > Wassen > Gewassen > Tekentechniek > Techniek > Materiaal en techniek

Entry bestandscatalogus Vroeg Nederlandse tekeningen uit de 15e en 16e eeuw

Auteur: Albert J. Elen

Deze beschrijving is momenteel alleen beschikbaar in het Engels.

Among the sixteenth-century Netherlandish drawings Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen owns four coherent groups which were made as designs for print series. Groups like these are rather unique as most have not survived or have been dispersed, individual drawings often missing since. These twelve miniature drawings by Hans Bol, which have been kept together in an album and have thus survived complete and in excellent condition, are designs for a series of prints depicting the twelve months, engraved by Adriaen Collaert (ca. 1560-1618) and published by Hans van Luyck in Antwerp around 1580-81.1 The museum owns a complete set of the first edition.

The depiction of the seasons (in series of four) and the months (in series of four, six or twelve) stems from medieval tradition; they are known from calendars in illuminated manuscripts. The genre was made popular by the dissemination of prints after designs by Pieter Bruegel. The artistic merits of the individual drawings in Bol’s series, combining the new landscape vision introduced by Bruegel with a highly accomplished miniature-like technique and great inventiveness, make it a milestone in the history of drawing. Despite their small size—the roundels have a diameter of only 14 cm each and look like miniatures—there is quite a lot to be seen in the carefully executed pen and brown ink drawings. They each show a variety of details from everyday life and bear witness to Bol’s double talent: he was both a landscapist and a ‘chronicler’ of everyday life. He was furthermore a pioneer of town views: some of the places in which the scenes in the twelve drawings are enacted can be identified as Antwerp (February), Brussels (September) and Bergen op Zoom (January).

The months can be identified by the signs of the Zodiac placed at top centre and by the occupations that are characteristic for each month:2 such as celebrating in January and May, skating in February, planting and pruning in March, cultivating the garden in April, shearing sheep in June, harvesting hay and grapes in July-August and September, wine making in October, felling trees and chopping wood in November, slaughtering pigs and processing meat in December.

Seven drawings are dated '1580' (February, May, June, July and September) or '1581' (October and November); all of these, except November are also fully signed. Assuming that the drawings were made in chronological order of the months, it may be concluded that January, March and April were made in 1580 and December in 1581.

In the depictions of the months June, July, August and October the signs of the zodiac were not executed on the sheet itself but each separately on a small circular piece of paper attached to it, probably as corrections. In the engravings – two consecutive months of one copper plate – Collaert has made changes where necessary (September and October), erroneously putting the sign of Pisces upside-down on the February engraving and horizontally mirroring the Cancer image of June. In the consecutively numbered engravings Collaert has added two double cadre Lines around each month, with the name in Latin capitals in between at the top, just above the sign of the zodiac, supplying the first with the names of the designer, engraver and publisher.

The print series served as a source of inspiration to contemporaries, including Bol’s follower Abel Grimmer (1570-1618) from Antwerp, who in 1599 even made a copy of the series in oil on tiny wood panels, of similar dimensions as the prints and in the same direction.3

The Twelve Months theme actually owes its popularity to Hans Bol and his successors. At the end of the sixteenth century the months were depicted in different ways. The landscape etchings with small figures by Peeter van der Borcht are entirely in the spirit of Bol’s series of 1580‑81, whereas Joos de Momper was placing large figures in his foregrounds. The series by Paul Bril (1615) and Jan van de Velde (1616) clearly herald the different ways in which Bol’s example would be followed later. The one chose to depict mountainous landscapes in the Italian manner, whereas the other highlighted the realistic element with lifelike Dutch landscapes. What all the series do however have in common are the signs of the Zodiac in the sky.

 

The Month October (Scorpio)

In October we can see the grape harvest in the vineyard in the background on the right, and in the farmyard in the foreground the preparation of wine in all stages of production. Two men are treading the harvested grapes in a large tub. The liquid is streaming out of a small tap in the front, into a cask. To the right the wine is being siphoned over into larger vats. When closed a full vat is transported by cart to the castle in the background on the right. The castle is situated on higher ground, with at the left a distant view of the landscape beyond.

In the preparatory drawings for September and October the zodiacal signs for Scorpio and Libra were mistakenly switched—an error by the draughtsman that was corrected by the engraver.

This is the design for the tenth engraving in the series of illustrations of the months by Adriaen Collaert, published by Hans van Luyck (ill. 1).4 In another print series of the months, etched by Peeter van der Borcht (ca. 1535-1608) after designs by an anonymous artist, possibly Hans Bol, the same activities are represented in the foreground, but they are part of a rectangular composition with a different background, of the month September, indicated as such in the cartouche below.5

[caption id="attachment_13754" width="800" align="alignleft"]fig. 1 Adriaen Collaert after Hans Bol. The month October (Scorpio), c. 1581. Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, inv. no. L 1965/114 jfig. 1 Adriaen Collaert after Hans Bol. The month October (Scorpio), c. 1581. Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, inv. no. L 1965/114 j[/caption]

Noten

1 New Hollstein 2005-06, part VI, pp. 48-56, nos. 1326-1337, illustrated (present in the museum’s collection, two successive months printed together on one sheet of paper, starting with January and February, ending with November and December: inv. no. L 1965/114 a-L).

2 Five years afterwards Bol designed a similar but oblong format series of the Months, with signs of the zodiac and labors of the months, with additional title print (EMBLEMATA EVANGELICA) and including scenes from the Life of Christ, which was likewise engraved by Adriaen Collaert, but published by Egidius Sadeler in 1585; New Hollstein 2005, part II, nos. 225-237, ill., a complete set is in the Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, inv. no. BdH 10495 BFA 53-10507 BFA 53.

3 In the art trade, see the catalogue of The European Fine Art Fair (TEFAF), Maastricht 2010, p. 117, ill.f

4 Possibly published by Gerard de Jode in Antwerp; New Hollstein 2005-06, part VI, p. 50, no. 1335, ill. on p. 55 (present in the museum’s collection, printed on one sheet of paper with September: inv. no. L 1965/114 j).

5 New Hollstein 2004, no. 157, ill.; Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, inv. no. BdH 24795.

Toon onderzoek Nederlandse tekeningen uit de vijftiende en zestiende eeuw
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Alles over de maker

Hans Bol

Mechelen 1534 - Amsterdam 1593

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