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Obligation de Monte Carlo

Obligation de Monte Carlo

Marcel Duchamp (in 1938)

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Title Obligation de Monte Carlo
Material and technique Lithograph
Object type
Print > Two-dimensional object > Art object
Location This object is in storage
Dimensions Height 315 mm
Width 220 mm
Artists Kunstenaar: Marcel Duchamp
Accession number MB 1991/3 (MK)
Credits Aankoop / Purchase: Stichting Fonds Willem van Rede 1991
Department Modern Art
Acquisition date 1991
Age artist About 51 years old
Collector Collector / W. van Rede
Provenance Galerie Ronny van de Velde, Antwerp
Exhibitions Paris 1930*; New York 1936-37*; Munich/Paris 1972*; Philadelphia/New York/Chicago 1973-74*; Paris 1977*; Barcelona/Madrid/Cologne 1984*; Venice 1993*; New York 1997; Rotterdam 1998a; Rotterdam 2010; Rotterdam 2013-14b
Research A dream collection - Surrealism in Museum Boijmans Van beuningen
Literature New York/Philadelphia 1973, p. 297, cat. no. 146; De Jonge 1995, p. 54; Mink 1995, p. 72; Schwarz 1997, p. 484; Naumann 1999, pp. 137-38; New York 1999, p. 137; Schwarz 2000, pp. 703-04, cat. no. 406b; Von Berswordt-Wallrabe 2003, pp. 92-5; Marcadé 2007, pp. 267-70
Lithography > Manual > Planographic printing > Printing technique > Technique > Material and technique
Geographical origin France > Western Europe > Europe

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Entry catalogue A dream collection - Surrealism in Museum Boijmans Van beuningen

Author: Bert Jansen

Man Ray, 'Marcel Duchamp as Rrose Sélavy', c. 1920-21, gelatin silver print, 21.6 x 17.3 cm. Philadelphia Museum of Art

In this colour lithograph, Marcel Duchamp’s face is superimposed on an image of a roulette wheel. The original photograph was taken by Man Ray. Duchamp’s chin and the sides of his face are covered with shaving foam, which also forms two horns on his head: a reference to the winged helmet of Mercury, the Roman god of trade. The first version of this lithograph dates from 1924, the period when Duchamp was reconsidering his artistic calling. He stopped working on Le Grand Verre (1915-23), which he signed in an unfinished state. Instead he tried to forge a career as a chess player and, with his friends and fellow artists Man Ray and Francis Picabia, sought possible ways of introducing moving images and film as an art form (Rotoreliefs: optical discs).[1] He also began signing his works with an alter ego, Rose Sélavy (‘Rose is life’), later Rrose (pronounced Eros). This lithograph is signed by Rrose Sélavy as the president of the Board of Management and by Marcel Duchamp as the manager. The choice of a female disguise can be explained as a way of relativizing the maker’s genius. According to Duchamp, the maker only had to bring the work into the world. By opting for a female pseudonym for this role, he made a comparison with a mother who, unlike a father, did not need any DNA to establish maternity.[2]

Duchamp got the idea for the bond during a chess tournament in Monte Carlo. The plan was, as the articles of association on the back state, to ‘exploit’ the casino in Monte Carlo and other goldmines along the Riviera. Duchamp claimed that he had developed a profitable system for playing the tables. With the proceeds he would be able to pay an annual dividend of twenty percent to the buyer of the bond. The work reflected Duchamp’s desire to use chance in his work.[3] Obligation de Monte Carlo was also an attempt to operate outside the art market. This is why he preferred to work with a patron who gave him an annual allowance in exchange for artworks. Only two of the original lithographs were sold at that time. After six months Duchamp informed his patron, the fashion designer Jacques Doucet, that playing bored him and paid him a once-only ten percent interest.[4] Most of the other bonds from the edition of thirty have been lost.

In 1938, when the art magazine XXième Siècle asked Duchamp for a contribution for the Christmas edition, he sent Obligation de Monte Carlo. In addition to the print run of two thousand for the magazine, he had three hundred extra copies printed for La boîte-en-valise, for which he was collecting material at that time. Later Duchamp also printed the bond on the cover of the book published to coincide with the launch of the replicas of his readymades in 1964 at Galleria Schwarz in Milan (Marcel Duchamp, Ready-Mades etc. (1913-1964)).



[1] For example in 1924 this led to the Surrealist film Entr’acte, of which the museum has a copy. In it Duchamp and Man Ray play a game of chess on a roof in the rue de Rivoli in the opening scene. Another example is Anémic Cinéma in 1925-26 in which Duchamp’s Rotoreliefs (no. 37) spin round, filmed by Man Ray.

[2] Van Alphen 1998.

[3] Other examples where Duchamp played with chance are Erratum Musical (1913) and 3 stoppages étalon (1913-14).

[4] Marcadé 2007, p. 270.

Show research A dream collection - Surrealism in Museum Boijmans Van beuningen
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All about the artist

Marcel Duchamp

Blainville-Crevon 1887 - Neuilly-sur-Seine 1968

Marcel Duchamp can be considered one of the founders of Dadaism and conceptual art. He became famous for, among other things, his 'ready mades': existing...

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