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Dutch Primitives - Paintings from the late Middle Ages

from February 16 2008 until May 25 2008

Geertgen tot Sint Jans, (Leiden? c. 1460 – Haarlem c. 1490), Glorification of the virgin Mary,  c. 1495, Panel, 26,8 x 20,5 cm, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam Geertgen tot Sint Jans (Leiden ? c. 1460 – Haarlem c. 1490), John the Baptist in the Wilderness, c. 1485, Panel, 42 x 28 cm, Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen, Berlin Geertgen tot Sint Jans (Leiden ? c. 1460 – Haarlem c. 1490), The Holy Kinship, c. 1495, Panel, 137,2 x 105,8 cm, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam Geertgen tot Sint Jans (Leiden ? c. 1460 – Haarlem c. 1490), The Revival of Lazarus, c. 1485, Panel, 125 x 97 cm, Musée du Louvre, Paris Master of the Virgin among Virgins (active in Delft c. 1470-1500), The Entombment of Christ, c. 1485, Panel, 57,8 x 45,8 cm, Saint Louis, The Saint Louis Art Museum Master of the Virgin among Virgins (active in Delft c. 1470-1500), The Crucifixion, c. 1490, Panel, 57 x 47 cm, Florence, Galleria degli Uffizi Master of the Brunswijk diptych, The Holy Family at Table, c. 1495, Panel, 37,3 x 23,8 cm, Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne Master of Alkmaar, Two panels from The Seven Works of Charity, Feeding the Hungry, panel, 103,5 x 55 cm, Refreshing the Thirsty, 1504, Panel, 103,5 x 56,8 cm, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam Master of the Amsterdam Death of the Virgin, Portrait of Dirck Borre van Amerongen and Maria van Snellenberg, c. 1500, Panel, 30,2 x 33,8 cm, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam Lucas van Leyden, (Leiden 1494 – Leiden 1533), Triptych, Adoration of the Golden Calf c. 1530, Panel, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

Bringing together more than sixty rare and poignant works, this exhibition at Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen provides an impressive survey of late medieval painting in Holland. The panels that make up this unique exhibition come from museums all around the world. Little is known about the Dutch primitives active around 1500, but they were certainly the match for their Flemish contemporaries. The work of the most important exponent, Geertgen tot Sint Jans from Haarlem, displays an unprecedented expressiveness. His realistic depiction of emotions and his eye for detail were typical of painting in Holland.

The exhibition allows us access to a distant time when the County of Holland was still part of the Burgundian Empire. The whitewashed churches, which are now such an essential element of Dutch culture, were then filled with colourful altarpieces. Everyone shared the same Catholic faith and art existed to serve religion. The meanings of many of the symbols in the paintings are now lost to us but the panels are just as moving as they were five hundred years ago.

The paintings were commissioned by pious and rich merchants who funded the decoration of the many churches, monasteries and convents built in Holland in the fifteenth century. Devotional pieces, which enabled the lay community to identify with biblical characters, were especially popular. Altars often included memorial tables with portraits of the donors – the dawn of portraiture in Holland. The paintings thus offer us a rare glimpse of everyday life in the late Middle Ages.

During the iconoclastic attacks in 1566 and 1572 reformers destroyed thousands of art works. Of the works that have survived we rarely know the identity of the painter or the year in which they were made. Many of the painters have been given names based upon a characteristic work such as the Master of the Virgo inter Virgines from Delft. In his own lifetime he was internationally renowned as a painter with a remarkable expressive style but after his death he fell into obscurity. This exhibition is the result of extensive research that has provided new insights into the origins of certain works.

The exhibition Dutch Primitives. Paintings from the late Middle Ages has been realised in partnership with the Rijksmuseum and with the support of main sponsor the Turing Foundation, the Prince Bernhard Cultural Foundation and Rabobank Rotterdam.